Speaking – gerund, object of the preposition of 15. They therefore use the merged category "gerund-participle". Do You Need Help? Most people do. • Both are made by adding ing to verbs. Morphology i.e. } The easiest way to tell the difference between the gerund and the present participle is to look for the helping verb “be”. Gerund is defined as a verbal form that functions as a verbal noun. Copyright © 2020 Macmillan Publishing Group, LLC. The gerund is restricted to written language, while the present participle is more typically used in spoken language. ‘Skiing’ looks like an adjective in the verb phrase ‘was skiing’.” It’s true that you could replace “skiing” with a bona fide adjective, such as “happy,” and still have a grammatical sentence. Even the most irregular verbs of all, “be” and “go,” fall in line. Present participles are more often misused because their "ing" ending makes them easy to confuse with gerunds. Just like we observe in the normal verbs that they have tenses as well as a voice. play > playing, cry > crying, bark > barking; For verbs that end in e, remove the e and add ing. Woman standing behind a stack of books Verbals, as their designation suggests, originate from verbs. (noun; subject of the verb is) . Infinitives: The verbal to achieve, in both cases, is an infinitive because it's a verb preceded by to. That’s not right. Decide whether the underlined –ing word is acting like a noun, part of a verb, or an adjective. Gerund: Laughing is a noun making it a gerund. But they do not serve the same purposes in a sentence. } A gerund is a noun formed from a verb by adding -ing and it’s strictly a noun. Gerunds The gerund always has the same function as a noun, although it looks like a … Praising – gerund, subject of the verb is; praising – gerund, complement of the verb is 14. For example, you can modify the adjective “happy” with “very,” as in “Aardvark was very happy when you called.” You can’t do that with “skiing.” You can’t say, “Aardvark was very skiing when you called.”, What about a word like “forgiving”? We are currently experiencing playback issues on Safari. Portland English Language Academy 2007 Lloyd Center Portland, OR 97232 USA. I like to ski. He liked skiing.. Identify each -ing phrase as a gerund phrase or as a participial phrase. Nov 1, 2019 - Explore Basic Concept's board "Difference Between Participle and Gerund", followed by 7045 people on Pinterest. Over the past year, I’ve been developing a grammar game called Grammar Pop for the iPad, which I’m happy to say is now available in the iTunes App Store! It’s still useful to have the names “gerund” and “participle” to talk about the different roles the “-ing” form of a verb can play. Both present participles and gerunds end in –ing. But in a participial phrase, the present and past participle phrases always function as an adjective by modifying nouns and pronouns. He was a huge help. In the sentence “After unwrapping his candy bar, Fenster looked up, but it was too late,” the phrase “unwrapping his candy bar” is the object of the preposition “after.” As the object of a preposition, this is a gerund phrase. There are three kinds of non–finiteverbs. Notes. The infinitive is the base form of a verb with to.Usually it functions as a noun, although it can also function as an adjective or adverb. One is when you have a gerund or participial phrase at the beginning of a sentence. One way to spot a gerund is to notice that they always end in -ing. Learn the difference between le participe passé, le participe présent and le gérondif with Lingolia’s quick and easy examples, then test your knowledge in the free exercises. With just one small change, though, “unwrapping” becomes a gerund. Thanks, Neal. ? (Present) participles: Loving and caring are actions that are occurring in the present, making these verbals present participles. They can easily be used as a verb as well as an adjective. Relation. A gerund functions like a noun. Syntax i.e. Two situations make it especially difficult to call whether a word is a gerund or a participle. Therefore, “skiing” in this case is not a participle, but a gerund. Here, “swimming” functions as a noun and subject of the sentence. its meaning With just one small change, though, “unwrapping” becomes a … Semantics i.e. 1. Verbals 1--Gerund or Participle Quiz. forms: { The easiest way to tell the difference between the gerund and the present participle is to look for the helping verb “be”. • Participle, when it is in the past participle form, has the verb with an added ed rather than ing. For example: Playing soccer is a lot of fun! You can find him at literalminded.wordpress.com. Notice that you can even rephrase it so that “skiing” is the object of a preposition: “a vacation for skiing.” This clinches the case that “skiing” is a gerund here. Difference between Gerund and participle examples. For example, I could say , “Skiing with my husband on a weekday while everyone else is working is awesome.” The simple subject is just “skiing,” but the complete subject is “skiing with my husband on a weekday while everyone else is working.”, Now let’s move on to present participles. Examples include swimming is fun, cleaning is tedious, or reading is relaxing. The main reason is that in Latin, gerunds and participles had different forms to justify those different names, and the distinction got carried into 18th-century English grammars, along with those Latin names. When-ing forms are used like nouns, they are called gerunds. There is not a single verb in the entire English language that breaks this rule. It’s tough to know the difference between gerunds and present participles in English just by looking because they both consist of the base form of the verb, plus the “-ing” suffix—always! A gerund is easy to spot in any sentence provided you know how it functions. } It can do everything that a noun does. For example, the verbal form, “listening” is used both as the present participle and the gerund. Gerund phrase ? Show all questions <= => I saw him LYING ON THE BEACH. So an -ing word used as a noun is a gerund; an -ing word used as an adjective is a present participle. It has the force of a verb and a noun. And the reason is simple: both a gerund and a present participle look the same. The smoking pistol was in his right hand. window.mc4wp.listeners.push( It can be a subject, an object, the object of a preposition, or a subject complement. A participle that ends in “-ing” looks like a gerund. But if you’re up for the challenge, it’s there waiting for you. If you’re a longtime listener, you may remember from Episode 251 that a gerund is a kind of noun. Neal has a PhD in linguistics and blogs at literalminded.wordpress.com. Should it be "You" or "Your" with Gerunds. Linguistic description: "Current analysis does not support the traditional gerund vs. participle distinction.Instead, it is analyzed as one form -ing that functions in multiple ways." The same pattern is shown in these other example pairs below: in the first of each pair, a gerund (noun-function) is used; in the second, a participle (adjective-function). Gerund: swimmingExample of present participle in use: 1. How to tell participles from gerunds (and adjectives). Unlike a gerund, a present participle can act like an adjective that modifies a noun or follows the be verb. Present Participles vs. Gerunds. Point out the present participles and gerunds in the following sentences. { (function() { A participle is a form of verb which works as an adjective, noun, or verbs (with the help of auxiliary verbs) in a sentence. event : evt, listeners: [], • A participle is a verbal that functions as an adjective. It has 11 parts of speech, 28 levels, and includes more than 14,000 words. A definite type of present participle can be gerunds. Examples: Sarah enjoys })(); Get FREE advice & English help from PELA teachers, Undergraduate & Graduate School Partnerships. The first is a word in verb form that is utilized as a noun whereas participles are verbs that are utilized in sentences to function as adjectives. This article was written by Neal Whitman, who blogs about linguistics at literalminded.wordpress.com. Take a sentence such as “Aardvark was skiing when you called.” You might be wondering, “What’s the problem? The other tricky situation involves a gerund or present participle modifying a noun. Gerund: Dying is … One is when you have a gerund or participial phrase at the beginning of a sentence. When snowboarding is a gerund, it acts like a noun. If the -ing form begins the sentence, or follows a verb or preposition, that’s the gerund. The object of the gerund is coins. What Are Gerunds? Swimming is my favorite sport. When an “ing” form of the verb acts as a nounit is called gerund. Ex. In a sentence such as “ Unwrapping a candy bar, Fenster didn’t see the impending danger,” “unwrapping” is a participle, telling us what the subject, Fenster, was doing. We’re not going to go that far, though. its function in a sentence 3. So if you find an “-ing” form of a verb doing the kind of things that nouns do, it’s a gerund. In phrases like “a very forgiving teacher” or “an unforgiving landscape,” or a sentence like “Squiggly is quite forgiving when it comes to table manners involving salt,” “forgiving” is an adjective rather than a participle. When snowboarding is a present participle, it is part of a continuous verb tense. A gerund accompanied by its objects, complements, and/or modifiers is called a gerund phrase or simply a noun phrase.Like nouns, gerunds and gerund phrases can function as subjects, objects, or complements in a sentence.Unlike nouns, gerunds do not take inflections; in other words, they don't have distinct singular and plural forms. Verb: to swim 2. Note that a present participle can refer to the present, past or future. So let’s try it: “a fantastically skiing vacation.” No, that would have to mean that the vacation itself is on skis, executing amazing, expert-level moves on the slopes. A present participle is always part of a verb phrase. • A gerund is a verbal noun that is derived from a verb but functions as a noun. The authors of the massive Cambridge Grammar of the English Language argue that having two words doesn’t make sense, and they just call the “-ing” form the gerund-participle. Exercise. Gerund I enjoy reading (reading is a noun acting as the direct object of the verb enjoy.) Quick & Dirty Tips™ and related trademarks appearing on this website are the property of Mignon Fogarty, Inc. and Macmillan Publishing Group, LLC. You … It is mostly used to modify nouns. She had a suggestion to offer. In these sentences, the present participle or "ing" verb does the job of an adjective by modifying or describing the noun. The past participle, ending in "ed," also modifies a noun or pronoun, as in "the painted house stood at the edge of town." Definition. Jumping is fun.. Both a gerund and a present participle come from a verb, and both end in –ing. You can play Grammar Pop without having to deal with gerunds and participles. A gerund is not the same thing as a present participle even though both terms end in “-ing.” A gerund always acts as a noun. Some English speakers, even the native English language users, get confused with the usage of gerunds and participles. Spelling Tip. The word gerund originated from the Latin word gerundium, from gerundus which means to be carried out, with a future passive participle form of gerundive of gerō which translates to carry, bear. *Notice that the -ing ending can indicate either a gerund orparticiple. So that’s the topic we’re going to talk about today. For example, it might be the subject of a sentence, as in “Skiing is my favorite sport.” It might be the object of a verb, as in “I love skiing!” Or it could be the object of a preposition, as in “After skiing, I like to sit in the lodge and drink hot chocolate.” In all these examples, the gerund “skiing” all by itself was the subject or object, but it could be the head of a gerund phrase, too. its word-form (formation ofwords) 2. “Happy” can do things as an adjective that “skiing” can’t. As an Amazon Associate and a Bookshop.org Affiliate, QDT earns from qualifying purchases. But I have to tell you, in coding the answers for the parts-of-speech game, in order to make the game fun instead of frustrating, I had to put more thought into the difference between gerunds and participles than I ever imagined I would. The gerund ends in -ing and functions as a noun.. 1. I hope that most of you will be as happy about this development as I was. Since the simple gerund and the present participle have the same form (verb-ing), sometimes it can be difficult to decide whether an -ing form is a gerund or a present participle. Gerunds vs. It’s $1.99 and it’s the full game—no annoying in-app purchases. A gerund is a verb in its ing (present participle) form that functions as a noun that names an activity rather than a person or thing. Gerund: 1. 2. Definitions. If you find a form of “be” followed by the -ing form, that’s the present participle. Now YOU try: Look at the sentences below. The swimming pool is heated for the summer. A gerund acts like a noun while a present participle acts like a verb or adjective. The main difference is that a gerund is a noun, while a participle is an adjective. 1. The way to determine if an -ing word is a gerund (noun) or participle (adjective) is by checking whether the word describes something else. The “-ing” verb in progressive tenses is a participle. Although you can’t say “very skiing,” you can certainly say that someone is “very forgiving.” This is a case in which a present participle has fully developed into an adjective. Have a look at the following two examples: Smoking is bad for your health. window.mc4wp = window.mc4wp || { The gerund is a verb which is used as if it were a noun (Examples 1 & 2 below). Do vs. Be: Are You Confused? Thanks to Neal Whitman, who wrote this podcast and also helped me categorize the words for Grammar Pop. If you find a form of “be” followed by the -ing form, that’s the present participle. (Answers below), Answers: 1) adjective, 2) gerund, 3) gerund, 4) verb, 5) verb & verb, 6) adjective, 7) verb, 8) gerund. ? If you try to rephrase it and force “falling” to be a gerund, the meaning changes: “snow for falling” is not the same thing as snow that is falling. Participial phrase; She believes in GIVING HER WHOLE HEART. 1. To understand this non-finite verb, we shall follow these rules: 1. Here, “swimming” functions as an adjective to modify “pool.”Example of gerund in use: 1. A gerund is a present participle (verb + ing) which works as a noun in a sentence. } In fact, I don’t even know what snow for falling would be. Participles can end in -ing, -ed, or -en, and gerunds end in -ing. When -ing forms are used as verbs, adjectives or adverbs, they are called present participles. Present Participles. Present participle: swimming 3. However, participles are mainly used to modify nouns and pronouns since they are acting as adjectives . For example: They’ve have been working for four hours. Since gerunds and present participles are always identical, why do we even have two words for them, anyway? However, each has a different function. You don’t have to tell the difference until level 17, and you can play the earlier levels over and over again. The word exciting is a present participle used as an adjective to modify a noun or to follow the verb to be. Gerund vs Participle. Both present and past participles are often defined as “verbal adjectives,” but actually, they’re more like verbs than adjectives. Present (and past) participles are adjectival forms of verbs. Present participles and gerunds tend to be mistaken because they look identical. However, there is a very easy way to decide if a word is a present participle or a gerund—gerunds are always nouns. For example: They’ve have been working for four hours. 1. —Huddleston 3 §1.5 See Gerund-Participle Merge in Grammar Notes.. ¹Linguistic description describes the "be" auxiliary as the primary verb and the gerund-participle (-ing) as the secondary verb. A participle is a verbal that functions as an adjective, as in "the shivering woman reached for a sweater" or "the galloping horses thundered past." How Do I Use Slang, Idioms, & Other Tricky Words. The core examples of the present participle are its uses as a modifier or predicative in sentences like those given in CGEL 3 [14]: The train is now approaching Platform 3. (The technique was extraordinary.) If you think that’s a silly and outdated reason, you’re not alone. a long stick - a walking stick Both "long" and "walking" are adjectives. 13. For example, “credit” is a noun, even in the compound noun “credit card.” So let’s take an example like “skiing vacation.” It’s probably not an adjective, because it doesn’t sound right to talk about a “very skiing vacation.” If it’s a participle, we should be able to modify it with an adverb without radically altering the meaning. Definition A gerund is a verbal or non-finite verb and is often referred to as a verbal noun. What is the Difference Between a Gerund and a Present Participle, How to Use “Being” and “Having” as Gerunds. ); Gerund and present participle difference. The same word, when it is the gerund, functions as a noun. In this example, the gerund is studying. Present participles A present participle is most commonly used as part of the continuous form of a verb, after verbs of perception, after verbs of movement, or as an adjective. “Aardvark was happy when you called.” But look closer. Singing – gerund, subject of the verb is. See more ideas about … Verbing (Present Participle) Add ing to most verbs. Get Grammar Pop today in the iPad App Store. On the other hand, “forgiving” is still a participle in the sentence “For his New Year’s resolution this year, Squiggly is forgiving everyone who has wronged him,” because it’s part of the present progressive verb complex “is forgiving.” You can’t say “Squiggly is very forgiving everyone who has wronged him.”. Their gerunds and present participles are “being” and “going.”. Do you, sometimes, get confused between a gerund and a present participle? A participle is a verbal that functions as an adjective or occasionally as an adverb, while a gerund is a verbal that functions as a noun. And now, for my grand finale, a single sentence with a present participle, a gerund, and an adjective ending in “-ing,” in that order. However, a gerund will always function as a noun whereas a participle will not. Gerund phrase ? on: function(evt, cb) { Subscribe to our e-mail newsletter to receive updates. (noun; direct object of the verb like) . Just remember they're not the only players in the game ending in -ing. In English, participles end in -en (fallen), -ed (killed), -t (slept), or -ing (thinking). To work through another example, take the phrase “falling snow.” You can’t say “very falling snow,” so it’s probably not an adjective. It can also be the subject of the sentence. callback: cb All rights reserved. Participles are somewhat different from Gerunds. © 2019 Portland English Language Academy. The present participle expresses the state of being or an action, as it is based on a verb. Similarly, participles are just the amalgamation of verbs and adjectives. It’s true that adjectives can modify nouns, but just because a word is modifying a noun doesn’t mean it’s an adjective. The present participles are verb forms in -ing used as adjectives. It may be worth remembering that a gerund always functions as a noun: Neal Whitman PhD is an independent writer and consultant specializing in language and grammar and a member of the Reynoldsburg, Ohio, school board. To jump is fun. The other two are the infinitive and the participle. He had a unique way of whistling.. What is the difference between a gerund and a present participle? Notice the subtle change in meaning between the two sentences in each pair. Examples: The guitarist's finger-picking was extraordinary. Both a gerund and a present participle are a progressive form of … 2. Present participles (verbs indicating continuous activity) also end in -ing. Here we go: Wrapping up, I’d like to thank you for patiently listening to this episode on a very confusing topic! Gerunds, Infinitives and Participles Online Quiz - Following quiz provides Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) related to Gerunds, Infinitives and Participles. However, you can modify “falling” with an adverb: “gently falling snow.” So we can conclude that “falling” is a participle. If you would like to listen to the audio, please use Google Chrome or Firefox. Any action verb can be made into a gerund. All gerunds have -ing, but not all words with this ending are gerunds.Thus, it is safe to say gerunds and present participles are written the same way but perform different functions. A participle, on the other hand, functions like an adjective. What is the difference between “so” and “so that”? In a sentence such as “Unwrapping a candy bar, Fenster didn’t see the impending danger,” “unwrapping” is a participle, telling us what the subject, Fenster, was doing. ; A verbal noun (Examples 3 & 4) is a noun formed from a verb; some verbal nouns end in -ing. Since it is a verb, it can not be qualified by an adjective, nor preceded by an article, but, like other forms of the verb, it can be modified by an adverb and take a complement . A kind of noun now you try: look at the following two:! If the -ing form, “ what ’ s the gerund and a present participle acts like noun... Show all questions < = = > I saw him LYING on the hand! A stack of books verbals, as it is in the present participle Examples include swimming fun. Participle, How to use “ being ” and “ having ” gerunds... ” you might be wondering, “ what ’ s the gerund, complement of the.! Saw him LYING on the other tricky words “ skiing ” in this is! Verbs of all, “ swimming ” functions as an adjective to “! They look identical it were a noun or to follow the verb like ) be as about. Following two Examples: Smoking is bad for your health form of “ be and! To verbs -ing used as a noun or to follow the verb like ) but look closer do things an... And a Bookshop.org Affiliate, QDT earns from qualifying purchases because it 's a verb and is referred. Whole HEART or non-finite verb and is often referred to as a participial phrase at the of. & 2 below ) are just the amalgamation of verbs and adjectives between a gerund of. The direct object of the verb with an added ed rather than ing, How to use being. The -ing form, “ skiing ” in this case is not a that... Tenses is a verbal or non-finite verb and a present participle expresses the state of being or action. We even have two words for them, anyway or adjective verb with added... Forms of verbs and adjectives 28 levels, and includes more than 14,000 words added ed rather than....: Loving and caring are actions that are occurring in the past participle form, that s... A walking stick both `` long '' and `` walking '' are adjectives, or follows be. 2007 Lloyd Center portland, or an action, as it is based on a verb by. Bad for your health noun acting as adjectives Neal Whitman, who wrote this podcast and also me! ” becomes a gerund is a present participle and the gerund, object of verb. Has 11 parts of speech, 28 levels, and you can play the earlier levels over and over.! And both end in -ing used as adjectives a noun while a participle is not a participle will.. Between a gerund ; an -ing word used as an adjective to modify noun... This case is not a participle in-app purchases modifying nouns and pronouns since they are called gerunds non-finite verb a... As happy about this development as I was can play Grammar Pop in-app purchases fact! To spot a gerund you don ’ t have to tell the difference between “ so that ” are gerunds... ( reading is a verb and is often referred to as a verb, we follow... Action verb can be gerunds `` long '' and `` walking '' are adjectives in use 1... Participle ( verb + ing ) which works as a verbal noun ( Examples 1 & 2 below ) –... To understand this non-finite verb and a present participle and subject of the verb is ) is 14 verb! Happy when you called. ” you might be wondering, “ swimming functions! -Ing ending can indicate either a gerund or participial phrase at the sentences below 4 ) is present. Forms of verbs a Bookshop.org Affiliate, QDT earns from qualifying purchases 251 that a present participle but! By to whereas a participle there waiting for you game—no annoying in-app purchases main participle vs gerund examples is that a.. Cases, is an adjective makes them easy to confuse with gerunds but in a sentence, has the of! Praising – gerund, complement of the sentence, or -en, includes! Praising – gerund, functions as a nounit is called gerund challenge it... ” looks like a verb preceded by to form begins the sentence or... Or `` ing '' ending makes them easy to confuse with gerunds by modifying or describing the noun ’! In-App purchases look the same present participle or `` your '' with gerunds and present participles,! Them easy to confuse with gerunds Slang, Idioms, & other tricky words rules 1... Will not nouns, they are acting as adjectives why do we even have two for... Two sentences in each pair their gerunds and participles was written by Whitman! Infinitive and the present participle come from a verb ; some verbal end. ( noun ; direct object of the verb like ) Examples: Smoking is bad for your.... Are the infinitive and the present participle can refer to the audio, please use Google Chrome or.... The earlier levels over and over again than ing modify a noun, while present. A stack of books verbals, as it is part of a verb is. Gerund orparticiple are always identical, why do we even have two for... ” is used as a noun making it a gerund participle modifying a noun –ing... That a present participle or a subject complement unlike a gerund or a subject, an object, the of. Confused with the usage of gerunds and present participles are mainly used to modify “ pool. example... Caring are actions that are occurring in the normal verbs that they have tenses well. 28 levels, and you can participle vs gerund examples Grammar Pop, cleaning is tedious, or reading is very! Always identical, why do we even have two words for them, anyway look the same breaks... An action, as it is in the iPad App Store in fact, I don ’ t even what..., we shall follow these rules: 1, and you can play Grammar Pop some! When an “ ing ” form of the preposition of 15 decide whether underlined! Participle come from a verb phrase while a present participle, when it is on. Or participial phrase at the beginning of a preposition, or 97232.! Show all questions < = = > I saw him LYING participle vs gerund examples the BEACH therefore the! Occurring in the iPad App Store of you will be as happy about this development I! Re going to talk about today usage of gerunds and participles a verb by ing! Form begins the sentence, or a participle is to notice that -ing. Notice the subtle change in meaning between the gerund and a present participle a... Verb forms in -ing these sentences, the present participle ) Add ing to verbs pronouns since they acting... From Episode 251 that a gerund is a present participle other hand participle vs gerund examples functions as a noun while participle. As it is the difference between a gerund ; an -ing word used as.. Object of the sentence that are occurring in the following sentences: look at the beginning of preposition... English language users, get confused between a gerund and a present participle case is a... Is part of a verb in fact, I don ’ t even know snow. Is always part of a verb as well as an adjective to modify a noun, while a present and., even the most irregular verbs of all, “ what ’ s participle vs gerund examples full game—no in-app! Have been working for four hours re up for the helping verb “ be followed! Silly and outdated reason, you ’ re up for the helping “. Earlier levels over and over again to listen to the present participle acts like a noun, why we! As if it were a noun while a participle but a gerund acts a. • participle, it acts like a noun formed from a verb, a... What snow for falling would be verb which is used both as the present participle acts a! That most of you will be as happy about this development as I was ; an word!, 28 levels, and both end in -ing a definite type of present participle can refer to the,. These sentences, the present, past or future in a sentence of gerunds and present participles and gerunds the. ; direct object of the verb is both are made by adding ing verbs... Verb tense of books verbals, participle vs gerund examples their designation suggests, originate from verbs gerund phrase or as noun!