As a study of the caste system in India, Dumont's Homo Hierarchicus offers several new … DUMONT Homo Aequalis. Dumont defines caste as a pan-Indian institution, a “system of ideas and values, a formal, comprehensible rational system.” (Dumont, 35) Most importantly, he explains how caste groups are distinguished from and connected to one another through (1) separation of matters of marriage and contact, (2) division of labor, traditions, and professions, and (3) hierarchy ranking groups as relatively … Caste is a unique phe­nomenon (Leach and Dumont) found in India but class is a universal phenomenon found all over the world. But, despite all these factors making for change, the most ubiquitous and the general form, the change has taken in contemporary times is one of a ‘mixture’, or ‘combination’, of traditional and modern features. Dumont says that caste is not a form of stratification but a special form of inequality whose essence has to be deciphered by the sociologists. There is one more category, the untouchables, who are outside the classification system. Fina!ly gradation of status or hierarchy, which ranks the groups as relatively superior to inferior to one another. Separation on the basis of rules of the caste in matters of marriage and contact, whether direct or indirect (food); Interdependent of work or div1s1on of labour, each group having, in theory or by tradition, a profession from which their members can depart only within certain limits; and. For him, caste is a set of relationships of economic, political and kinship systems, sustained by certain ‘values’, which are mostly religious in nature. The varna categorisation implicitly had a fifth element, being those people deemed to be entirely outsid… Caste without a system. Dumont's analysis of caste system is based on the classical literature, historical examples etc. This article concludes that Weber and Dumont represent a methodological contrast that is noteworthy for cross-cultural comparisons, while also emphasising the intellectualist inclination in Dumont's preoccupation with hierarchy in a world-historical perspective. Dumont felt that the study of the caste system is useful for the knowledge of India, and it is an important task of general sociology. The Varna system in Dharma-shastras divides society into four varnas (Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishya and Shudras). The Background. But, the opposite has always been two extreme categories, i.e., Brahmin and untouchables. The higher 1s or that of the Brahmins or priest, below them are the Kshatriyas or warriors, then the Vaishyas, in modern usage merchants, and finally, the Shudras, the servants or have-nots. … ; Dumont also seems to characterize Indian Society as almost stagnant, since he emphasizes the integrative function of caste system. Even, the objects are considered as pure and impure; silk is purer than cotton, gold than silver, than bronze, than copper. Dumont contends that chang so far hae bors n 'on th politico-economie c domain of social life'; 'Everything happen as thougsh the system tolerated change only within one of its secondary spheres' (p. 228). Similarly, relying on the contrasts among different societies, Dumont endeavored to distinguish caste, racism, and stratification. Caste and Varna are to be understood with relationship of hierarchy and power. 2. Conceptualisation of the hierarchical meaning of caste by Dumont has been prolific. 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